55. Limit Alcohol and Tobacco
Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol is linked to an increased risk for several kinds of cancer, especially those of the mouth, throat, and esophagus. The combination of alcohol and tobacco appears to be especially dangerous. For example, in heavy smokers or heavy drinkers, the risk of developing cancer of the esophagus is roughly 6 times greater than that for nonsmokers/nondrinkers. But in people who both smoke and drink, the cancer risk is more than 40 times greater than that for nonsmokers/nondrinkers. Clearly the combination of alcohol and tobacco is riskier than would be expected by just adding the effects of the two together.