43. Proto-Oncogenes and Normal Cell Growth
Oncogenes are related to normal genes called proto-oncogenes that encode components of the cell's normal growth-control pathway. Some of these components are growth factors, receptors, signaling enzymes, and transcription factors. Growth factors bind to receptors on the cell surface, which activate signaling enzymes inside the cell that, in turn, activate special proteins called transcription factors inside the cell's nucleus. The activated transcription factors "turn on" the genes required for cell growth and proliferation.