THE SURGICAL DISSECTION OF THE POPLITEAL SPACE AND THE POSTERIOR CRURAL REGION.
On comparing the bend of the knee with the bend of the elbow, as evident a correspondence can be discerned between these two regions, as exists between the groin and the axilla.
Behind the knee-joint, the muscles which connect the leg with the thigh enclose the space named popliteal. When the integuments and subcutaneous substance are removed from this place, the dense fascia lata may be seen binding these muscles so closely together as to leave but a very narrow interval between them at the mesial line. On removing this fascia, B B M M, Plate 65, the muscles part asunder, and the popliteal space as usually described is thereby formed. This region now presents of a lozenge-shaped form, B J D K, of which the widest diameter, D J, is opposite the knee-joint. The flexor muscles, C D J, in diverging from each other as they pass down from the sides of the thigh to those of the upper part of the leg, form the upper angle of this space; whilst its lower angle is described by the two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, E E, arising inside the flexors, from the condyles of the femur. The popliteal space is filled with adipose substance, in which are embedded several lymphatic bodies and through which pass the principal vessels and nerves to the leg.
In the dissection of the popliteal space, the more important parts first met with are the branches of the great sciatic nerve. In the upper angle of the space, this nerve will be found dividing into the peronaeal, I, and posterior tibial branches, H K. The peronaeal nerve descends close to the inner margin of the tendon, J, of the biceps muscle; and, having reached the outer side of the knee, I*, Plate 66, below the insertion of the tendon into the head of the fibula, winds round the neck of this bone under cover of the peronaeus longus muscle, S, to join the anterior tibial artery. The posterior tibial nerve, H K, Plate 65, descends the popliteal space midway to the cleft between the heads of the gastrocnemius; and, after passing beneath this muscle, to gain the inner side of the vessels, H*, Plate 66, it then accompanies the posterior tibial artery. On the same plane with and close to the posterior tibial nerve in the popliteal space, will be seen the terminal branch of the lesser sciatic nerve, together with a small artery and vein destined for distribution to the skin and other superficial parts on the back of the knee. Opposite the heads of the gastrocnemius, the peronaeal and posterior tibial nerves give off each a branch, both of which descend along the mesial line of the calf, and joining near the upper end of the tendo Achillis, the single nerve here, N, Plate 65, becomes superficial to the fascia, and thence descends behind the outer ankle to gain the external border of the foot, where it divides into cutaneous branches and others to be distributed to the three or four outer toes. In company with this nerve will be seen the posterior saphena vein, L, which, commencing behind the outer ankle, ascends the mesial line of the calf to join the popliteal vein, G, in the cleft between the heads of the gastrocnemius.
On removing next the adipose substance and lymphatic glands, we expose the popliteal vein and artery. The relative position of these vessels and the posterior tibial nerve, may now be seen. Between the heads of the gastrocnemius, the nerve, H, giving off large branches to this muscle, lies upon the popliteal vein, G, where this is joined by the posterior saphena vein. Beneath the veins lies the popliteal artery, F. On tracing the vessels and nerve from this point upwards through the popliteal space, we find the nerve occupying a comparatively superficial position at the mesial line, while the vessels are directed upwards, forwards, and inwards, passing deeply, as they become covered by the inner flexor muscles, C D, to the place where they perforate the tendon of the adductor magnus on the inner side of the lower third of the femur.
The popliteal artery, F, Plate 66, being the continuation of the femoral, extends from the opening in the great adductor tendon at the junction of the middle and lower third of the thigh, to the point where it divides, in the upper, and back part of the leg, at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, L, into the anterior and posterior tibial branches. In order to expose the vessel through this extent, we have to divide and reflect the heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, E E, and to retract the inner flexors. The popliteal artery will now be seen lying obliquely over the middle of the back of the joint. It is deeply placed in its whole course. Its upper and lower thirds are covered by large muscles; whilst the fascia and a quantity of adipose tissue overlies its middle. The upper part of the artery rests upon the femur, its middle part upon the posterior ligament of the joint, and its lower part upon the popliteus muscle. The popliteal vein, G; adheres to the artery in its whole course, being situated on its outer side above, and posterior to it below. The vein is not unfrequently found to be double; one vein lying to either side of the artery, and both having branches of communication with each other, which cross behind the artery. In some instances the posterior saphena vein, instead of joining the popliteal vein, ascends superficially to terminate in some of the large veins of the thigh. Numerous lymphatic vessels accompany the superficial and deep veins into the popliteal space, where they join the lymphatic bodies, which here lie in the course of the artery.
The branches derived from the popliteal artery are the muscular and the articular. The former spring from the vessel opposite those parts of the several muscles which lie in contact with it; the latter are generally five in number--two superior, two inferior, and one median. The two superior articular branches arise from either side of the artery, and pass, the one beneath the outer, the other beneath the inner flexors, above the knee-joint; and the two inferior pass off from it, the one internally, the other externally, beneath the heads of the gastrocnemius below the joint; while the middle articular enters the joint through the posterior ligament. The two superior and inferior articular branches anastomose freely around the knee behind, laterally, and in front, where they are joined by the terminal branches of the anastomotic, from the femoral, and by those of the recurrent, from the anterior tibial. The main vessel, having arrived at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, divides into two branches, of which one passes through the interosseous ligament to become the anterior tibial; while the other, after descending a short way between the bones of the leg, separates into the peronaeal and posterior tibial arteries. In some rare instances the popliteal artery is found to divide above the popliteus muscle into the anterior, or the posterior tibial, or the peronaeal.
The two large muscles, (gastrocnemius and soleus,) forming the calf of the leg, have to be removed together with the deep fascia in order to expose the posterior tibial, and peronaeal vessels and nerves. The fascia forms a sheath for the vessels, and binds them close to the deep layer of muscles in their whole course down the back of the leg. The point at which the main artery, F, Plate 66, gives off the anterior tibial, is at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, on a level with N, the neck of the fibula; that at which the artery again subdivides into the peronaeal, P, and posterior tibial branches, O, is in the mesial line of the leg, and generally on a level with the junction of its upper and middle thirds. From this place the two arteries diverge in their descent; the peronaeal being directed along the inner border of the fibula towards the back of the outer ankle; while the posterior tibial, approaching the inner side of the tibia, courses towards the back of the inner ankle. The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles overlie both arteries in their upper two thirds; but as these muscles taper towards the mesial line where they end in the tendo Achillis, V V, Plate 65, they leave the posterior tibial artery, O, with its accompanying nerve and vein, uncovered in the lower part of the leg, except by the skin and the superficial and deep layers of fasciae. The peronaeal artery is deeply situated in its whole course. Soon after its origin, it passes under cover of the flexor longus pollicis, R, a muscle of large size arising from the lower three fourths of the fibula, N, and will be found overlapped by this muscle on the outer border of the tendo Achillis, as low down as the outer ankle. The two arteries are accompanied by venae comites, which, with the short saphena vein, form the popliteal vein. The posterior tibial artery is closely followed by the posterior tibial nerve. In the popliteal space, this nerve crosses to the inner side of the posterior tibial artery, where both are about to pass under the gastrocnemius muscle, to which they give large branches. Near the middle of the leg, the nerve recrosses the artery to its outer side and in this relative position both descend to a point about midway between the inner ankle and calcaneum, where they appear having the tendons of the tibialis posticus and flexor longus digitorum to their inner side and the tendon of the flexor longus pollicis on their outer side. Numerous branches are given off from the nerve and artery to the neighbouring parts in their course.
The varieties of the posterior crural arteries are these--the tibial vessel, in some instances, is larger than usual, while the peronaeal is small, or absent; and, in others, the peronaeal supplies the place of the posterior tibial, when the latter is diminished in size. The peronaeal has been known to take the position of the posterior tibial in the lower part of the leg, and to supply the plantar arteries. In whatever condition the two vessels may be found, there will always be seen ramifying around the ankle-joint, articular branches, which anastomose freely with each other and with those of the anterior tibial.
The popliteal artery is unfavourably circumstanced for the application of a ligature. It is very deeply situated, and the vein adheres closely to its posterior surface. Numerous branches (articular and muscular) arise from it at short intervals; and these, besides being a source of disturbance to a ligature, are liable to be injured in the operation, in which case the collateral circulation cannot be maintained after the main vessel is tied. There is a danger, too, of injuring the middle branch of the sciatic nerve, in the incisions required to reach the artery; and, lastly, there is a possibility of this vessel dividing higher up than usual. Considering these facts in reference to those cases in which it might be supposed necessary to tie the popliteal artery--such cases, for example, as aneurism of either of the crural arteries, or secondary haemorrhages occurring after amputations of the leg at a time when the healing process was far advanced and the bleeding vessels inaccessible,--it becomes a question whether it would not be preferable to tie the femoral, rather than the popliteal artery. But when the popliteal artery itself becomes affected with aneurism, and when, in addition to the anatomical circumstances which forbid the application of a ligature to this vessel, we consider those which are pathological,--such as the coats of the artery being here diseased, the relative position of the neighbouring parts being disturbed by the tumour, and the large irregular wound which would be required to isolate the disease, at the risk of danger to the health from profuse suppuration, to the limb from destruction of the collateral branches, or to the joint from cicatrization, rendering it permanently bent,--we must acknowledge at once the necessity for tying the femoral part of the main vessel.
When the popliteal artery happens to be divided in a wound, it will be required to expose its bleeding orifices, and tie both these in the wound. For this purpose, the following operation usually recommended for reaching the vessel may be necessary. The skin and fascia lata are to be incised in a direction corresponding to that of the vessel. The extent of the incision must be considerable, (about three inches,) so as the more conveniently to expose the artery in its deep situation. On laying bare the outer margin of the semi-membranosus muscle, while the knee is straight, it now becomes necessary to flex the joint, in order that this muscle may admit of being pressed inwards from over the vessel. The external margin of the wound, including the middle branch of the sciatic nerve, should be retracted outwards, so as to ensure the safety of that nerve, while room is gained for making the deeper incisions. The adipose substance, which is here generally abundant, should now be divided, between the mesial line and the semimembranosus, till the sheath of the vessels be exposed. The sheath should be incised at its inner side, to avoid wounding the popliteal vein. The pulsation of the artery will now indicate its exact position. As the vein adheres firmly to the coats of the artery, some care is required to separate the two vessels, so as to pass the ligature around each end of the artery from without inwards, while excluding the vein. While this operation is being performed in a case of wound of the popliteal artery, the haemorrhage may be arrested by compressing the femoral vessel, either against the femur or the os pubis.
In the operation for tying the posterior tibial artery near its middle, an incision of three or four inches in extent is to be made through the skin and fascia, in a line corresponding with the inner posterior margin of the tibia and the great muscles of the calf. The long saphena vein should be here avoided. The origins of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles require to be detached from the tibia, and then the knee is to be flexed and the foot extended, so as to allow these muscles to be retracted from the plane of the vessels. This being done, the deep fascia which covers the artery and its accompanying nerve is next to be divided. The artery will now appear pulsating at a situation an inch from the edge of the tibia. While the ligature is being passed around the artery, due care should be taken to exclude the venae comites and the nerve.
DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 65 & 66.
A. Tendon of the gracilis muscle.
B B. The fascia lata.
C C. Tendon of the semimembranosus muscle.
D. Tendon of the semitendinosus muscle.
E E. The two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle.
F. The popliteal artery.
G. The popliteal vein joined by the short saphena vein.
H. The middle branch of the sciatic nerve.
I. The outer (peronaeal) branch of the sciatic nerve.
K. The posterior tibial nerve continued from the middle branch of the sciatic, and extending to K, behind the inner ankle.
L. The posterior (short) saphena vein.
M M. The fascia covering the gastrocnemius muscle.
N. The short (posterior) saphena nerve, formed by the union of branches from the peronaeal and posterior tibial nerves.
O. The posterior tibial artery appearing from beneath the soleus muscle in the lower part of the leg.
P. The soleus muscle joining the tendo Achillis.
Q. The tendon of the flexor longus communis digitorum muscle.
R. The tendon of the flexor longus pollicis muscle.
S. The tendon of the peronaeus longus muscle.
T. The peronaeus brevis muscle.
U U. The internal annular ligament binding down the vessels, nerves, and tendons in the hollow behind the inner ankle.
V V. The tendo Achillis.
W. The tendon of the tibialis posticus muscle.
X. The venae comites of the posterior tibial artery.
A C D E F G H I indicate the same parts as in Plate 65.
B. The inner condyle of the femur.
K. The plantaris muscle lying upon the popliteal artery.
L. The popliteus muscle.
M M M. The tibia.
N N. The fibula.
O O. The posterior tibial artery.
P. The peronaeal artery.
Q R S T U V W. The parts shown in Plate 65.
X. The astragalus.