3-6-6. The Parathyroid Glands
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The parathyroid glands produce and secrete PTH, a peptide hormone, in response to low blood calcium levels (Figure 2). PTH secretion causes the release of calcium from the bones by stimulating osteoclasts, which secrete enzymes that degrade bone and release calcium into the interstitial fluid. PTH also inhibits osteoblasts, the cells involved in bone deposition, thereby sparing blood calcium. PTH causes increased reabsorption of calcium (and magnesium) in the kidney tubules from the urine filtrate. In addition, PTH initiates the production of the steroid hormone calcitriol (also known as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D), which is the active form of vitamin D3, in the kidneys. Calcitriol then stimulates increased absorption of dietary calcium by the intestines. A negative feedback loop regulates the levels of PTH, with rising blood calcium levels inhibiting further release of PTH.
Abnormally high activity of the parathyroid gland can cause
In contrast, abnormally low blood calcium levels may be caused by parathyroid hormone deficiency, called
When blood calcium levels are high, calcitonin is produced and secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. As discussed earlier, calcitonin inhibits the activity of osteoclasts, reduces the absorption of dietary calcium in the intestine, and signals the kidneys to reabsorb less calcium, resulting in larger amounts of calcium excreted in the urine.
Calcium is required for a variety of important physiologic processes, including neuromuscular functioning; thus, blood calcium levels are closely regulated. The parathyroid glands are small structures located on the posterior thyroid gland that produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which regulates blood calcium levels. Low blood calcium levels cause the production and secretion of PTH. In contrast, elevated blood calcium levels inhibit secretion of PTH and trigger secretion of the thyroid hormone calcitonin. Underproduction of PTH can result in hypoparathyroidism. In contrast, overproduction of PTH can result in hyperparathyroidism.
When blood calcium levels are low, PTH stimulates ________.
Which of the following can result from hyperparathyroidism?
Critical Thinking Questions
Describe the role of negative feedback in the function of the parathyroid gland.
The production and secretion of PTH is regulated by a negative feedback loop. Low blood calcium levels initiate the production and secretion of PTH. PTH increases bone resorption, calcium absorption from the intestines, and calcium reabsorption by the kidneys. As a result, blood calcium levels begin to rise. This, in turn, inhibits the further production and secretion of PTH.
Explain why someone with a parathyroid gland tumor might develop kidney stones.
A parathyroid gland tumor can prompt hypersecretion of PTH. This can raise blood calcium levels so excessively that calcium deposits begin to accumulate throughout the body, including in the kidney tubules, where they are referred to as kidney stones.
parathyroid hormone (PTH)